The path of Santa Juana site occupies 10 hectares of land earmarked for housing construction. Before starting the works, as it is required by law, there were forward-looking actions that led to the location of the finding. A team of archaeologists led by Pilar Oñate and Juan Sanguino carried out between 2005 and 2011, various phases of archaeological activities in this field.
Thanks to these excavations the largest artisanal Centre of Roman times in the region were released (4th Centuries-5th after Christ). A ceramic grave of goods, a metal regalia, a thermal set, a potter centre and two necropolises.
Is integrated by eight pieces of "Terra sigillata" (type of ceramic Roman of red glossy color) Late Hispanic: four bowls and four large sources. Stamping grounds for hunting and cavalry is distinguished in its decoration. One of the recipients has recorded a rutting between deer.
Four bowls of different sizes and a patera all them bronze.
The relevance of the parts and their association provide findings with a special meaning, since it's a singular set of utensils of sumptuary character. It is the first time that a full grave goods items, whose layout suggests that it was intentionally concealed is located in the community. The discovery, to a meter deep and camouflaged with straw, suggests the appreciation that the owner felt attracted to ceramics and the feeling of a close threat.
Earl Time (1st and 2nd Centuries b.C.) the thermal building is composed of four rooms, including an indoor oven. It is partially excavated and it has been reserved for its possible future museum conservation.
Low Imperial Time (4th and 5th Centuries b.C.). It includes a rare copy of drying of ceramic, areas of extraction and discharges, as well as ten stoves, combustion residues, wells and extraction of clay bowls. Some ovens have been excavated to integrate them in a likely area of musealization.
In the Northwest area of the main thermal area there is a small necropolis of 10 graves. In the North area there is a necropolis with over 400 graves estimated.
Sites of the community of Madrid. Thanks to the endowments of the General Directorate of historic heritage of the community of Madrid, ovens and all discoveries with archaeological value has been properly protected. An area shall be run-in with new allocations to expose the findings.
For Cubas de la Sagra, this finding is very important, since it implies that the origin of the village is located, in Roman Ages instead of Medieval times as it was believed until now.
Walking through Cubas you can discover a clean, quiet village, which also harbors some Manchegan influences. Its oldest houses are adscript to the typical rural tradition, known as “la Sagramadrileña” which consists of white walls, with only one or two floors covered by an Arabian tile roof.
We can also contemplate some stately homes, belonging to the new families and surnames arrived to Cubas since the 19th century. Most of these families proceed from the city Madrid, and they acquired different fields in order to build their second homes, also known as “hoteles”. The villagers called these new inhabitants arriving in summer or at the weekends “la colonia”.
Many families from Cubas found a good labor opportunity working for these new families arriving from the city, in jobs such as domestic cleaners and domestic service.
The Cassy’s family home is in the Constitution Square next to the St. Andrés church.
It is an ancestral house catalogued by the Community of Madrid because of its cultural and artistic interest. It has a fantastic large English-style garden around the whole house. It was built in 1721 by the PozobuenoMarquess. They restored it for first time in the middle of the 19th century, and it was wholly rebuilt in 1980.
Along the 19th century started to arrive new families to Cubas for different reasons. Among these, are the Cassy’s family members, who had a close relationship with the primogeniture of Dr. Francisco González de Sepúlveda (Catholic Church’s doctor and Felipe III’s). This doctor had already donated the fields and houses for the Convent of the Capuchinos in the 17th Century.
The first Cassy member to arrive to Cubas was Mr. Gabriel Cassy and Magdalena, who was the administrator of the Pozobuena Marquise’s properties and possessions. This woman was also the heir of the Doctor’s primogeniture. The Marquise was a widow and she did not have children, as these died very soon. Gabriel Cassy was also a widower but he had a son, who after his father and the Marquise’s marriage became the heir of all these properties and possessions.
Nowadays, this ancestral house is the best option for many to celebrate special events such as weddings, filming series and movies, etc.
On this house, we can notice a “neomudéjar” style that is present in many different building around Cubas. It is built of brick and lacquered masonry crates influenced by the style from Toledo. It is worth mention its fortified tower, which has on the sides of its top part, threes pointed arches enclosed with bricks.
Another evidence of the “neomudéjar” style in Cubas, this house was built by the architect Daniel Zabala Álvarez at the end of the 19th century. It has two floors, a basement and it is shaped as a letter Y. Its front made of brick is decorated with crown molding and frames.
During the Civil War, some German soldiers occupied it; they belonged to the “Legión Cóndor”.
Nowadays holds different events and it is mainly dedicated to restoration activities. It is known as “La Casona”.
Placed in the Inmaculada Street on the path to the Constitution Square.
This house also contains “neomudéjar” influences.
In 1618 the Marquess of Povar, who was then the Lord of Griñón and Cubas, decided to found a new monastery beneath his patronage. His petition was accepted, in great measure, because of the fantastic geographical situation and the good communication of Cubas, close to Toledo (depending on this city for ecclesiastical issues) and close to Madrid (depending on this city for administrative issues).
The monks from the Capuchin Order (belonging to the Saint Francisco Order) arrived to the village to establish the Convent of the Capuchin on behalf of Saint Catalina de Alejandría.
Francisco González de Sepúlveda, who was the Doctor of the Clergy and Felipe III, donated the houses and fields where the Convent was built. These fields where situated in the north of the village.
Since then, the Capuchin Monks lived in Cubas as a small community. Their incomes came from the vegetable gardens they grew up and the alms they received from the neighbors of Cubas. Some of these villagers would also legate their properties to the monks.
In the 19th century, after Napoleon arrived and with him all his changes, the Convent remained empty until 1813. After this period, the friars came again to the Convent to be a smaller group than before.
After the Mendizábal's expropriation, this Convent disappeared, and so did all the friars in 1836. All the precious objects from the Convent were transferred to the Church of Saint Andrés (Holy silvery Chalice of Marquise Malpica, the Holy water basin and reliquary, in which it was hidden Saint Simón Apóstol’s head). The convent was sold in auction to Valentín Sacristán. Along the following years, this property would be inherited by the different members in his family, enlarging its fields and in some circumstances being sold part of its farming fields.
Nowadays, after being remodeled, this Convent holds the current Town Hall of Cubas.
The factory was founded by the Stuyck family, in the 1920s, with the desire to help people and their young inhabitants have a future beyond agriculture. This family was well known and respected in the village, having a private residence in Cubas. The Stuyck, were also known to be the directors of the Royal Tapestry factory in Madrid since the last third of the 19th century with Gabino Stuyck Dulongal. Over the following years, there was a succession in the direction of the Royal factory, from father to son, being curious also how the names of Gabino Livinio and vice versa were succeeded.
The first property that will be chosen is in the Inmaculada Street, cornered with the Gabino Stuyck roundabout, which later was moved to a farm which is now occupied in the street Livinio Stuyck.
The village, until the end of the 1930s, will be devoted to weaving knot carpets and tapestries for noble and wealthy families. It reached to have a hundred employees, which highlights the economic importance of the factory for the people.
Production will cease in 1936, and suffer destruction of looms, carpets, etc., in the early days of the Civil War. Since then it has not opened its doors.
In 1954 the Congregation of Missionary Crusades of the Church acquired the building Stuyck family. At first it was novitiate and later became the Escuela-Hogar "Santa María de los Apóstoles", free educational centre for children of Cubas and the province of Madrid. It has now become a House of spirituality run by the nuns of the Congregation.
The Church of St. Andrés el Apóstol is located in the square of the Constitution, in the centre of the municipality. It is one of the fundamental settlements that accompanies the people since the 12th Century, in which we began to build its apse, typical mudejar style in the Toledo building from the second half of the 12th Century until the end of the 13th Century.
The building will undergo continuous transformations until nowadays, documenting an uninterrupted series of interventions on the old apse. Among these transformationsit is important to highlight the gothic vault, built between the 15th and 16th Centuries.
Also of great beauty, there is the ship with “mudéjar” coffered ceiling of the 16th Century: its decoration is simple and responds to a very classical scheme within the tradition of the "mudéjar” carpentry".
And of course we can not talk about the altar, dedicated to St. Andrew, who presides over the Church, with an interesting array of architecture, sculpture and painting, commissioned initially by Pablo Cisneros and made by different masters between 1582 and 1652 and follows the aesthetic approaches of the so-called "toledano classicism".
All these elements will make the temple an interesting example in which you can see the footprint of the two periods of greatest splendour of the works carried out in these centuries the Archbishopric and Kingdom of Toledo: the "mudéjar" phase and the "final Gothic".
In 1983 it will be declared of Cultural interest in the category of historical-artistic monument of national character (Royal Decree 525/1983, of 19 January).
The Church was restored between 1990 and 1993, giving it the current and improved image that we see today.
The origin of what currently the Santa María de la Cruz friary or the Santa Juana Convent is, it is placed in the middle of the fifteenth century in a meadow close to the village of Cubas de la Sagra. In accordance with some testimonies and documents from that time; it was here where the Virgin came into the view of a shepherdess called Inés in March, 1449. The Virgin uttered the little girl her desire of having in this very place a church which worships her.
Firstly, a small hermitage or "the Virgin house" was built, carrying the advocation of Santa María de la Cruz, who a bit later, would become into a beaterio (1464). But it was thanks to the work of the Juana de la Cruz mother, widely known as "La Santa Juana", that this one turned into one of the richest and most important friaries from that time (following the directions from the Third Writ of San Francisco de Asís) through the kindness that will received by kings and nobility (curiously and as an example of its wealth, it is important to mark out that the ground where it was erected the first chapel of "La Virgen de la Paloma" in Madrid (1795) was owned by the nuns).
It will become an important place for people to pilgrimage: Don Juan de Austria, Carlos I (who spent the whole night there during his journey to the Guadalupe friary) and Felipe II; these were some examples of the very important people who went by it.
The main structure of the building dates from the sixteenth century, and it will meet a couple of improvements as well as numerous mishaps along its history: the encroachment by the French army, the Mendizábal confiscation or its destruction during the Civil War, being destroyed the library and its registry.
The friary will be rebuilt by the "Regiones Devastadas" institution , with a modest factory and the monastic life will start again in 1943. In 1988, the rebuilt of the temple began and it finished in 1994.
Its main altarpiece and the tabernacle, where the remains of "la Santa Juana" are kept, will be ascribed to the altarpiece's architect called Sebastián de Benavente in the seventeenth century. (Cruz Yábar, Juan María "Sebastián de Benavente and the franciscana writ" in Revista Anales de la Historia del Arte 2011 21, 123-146).
Similarly, the main chapel of the church was created by the Baroque architect Manuel García and it included a set of sculptures which belonged to the sculptor Pedro Alonso de los Ríos. Unfortunately, both of them got lost when the Convent was wrecked during the Civil War. It is known about their existence thanks to the papers and documents found in the Historic Protocol Registry of Madrid.
The building is based on a main core set up around a cloister and it has the two-floor conventual premises, the chapter house and the chapel which covered all the west area.
The current and newly built church behaves to the old choir and it is reachable passing through the crypt.
Juana Vázquez was born in Azaña, currently known as Numancia de la Sagra (Toledo), in 1481. She uttered many times her desire of embracing the cloth but her father was against. When she was 15, she decided to enroll in monastic life and she run away from both, her house and a sham marriage dressed up like a boy in order to join the Nuestra Señora de la Cruz beaterio.
She stood out because of her piousness and her "mystical" moments, showing talent as a preacher and finally; she was designated abbess. The Cisneros Cardinal or the Great Captain are some examples among the notorious people who came to listen to her.
She proposed to herself the duty of reforming the friary, by getting big endowments from Spanish nobility families and even from Carlos I, who equipped the friary with a permanent amount of money called "juro", which made sure the nuns had a yearly income. But the one who really contributed was the Cisneros Cardinal giving to both, the abbess and the nuns, two successive privileges: the rights, adjoining premises and own ones, fruits and incomes from the parochial church of Cubas, which, since then was going to remain attached to the friary.
All these privileges made Santa suffer a lot of envy even inside the friary; she was removed from his charge in favor of the subpriora. Soon after, the subpriora passed away and Juana was designated abbess again.
The Santa Juana's mother passed away the 3rd of May in 1534. Soon, she was declared Saint by the local people, even getting public worship. After The Council of Trent, due to the fact that her holiness could not be identified such as "cult 'ab immemorabili" because the period of time established and regulated by the Urbano's VIII decree to do so, which were one hundred years, was not enough; given that, it was necessary to do it using the common way. She was declared venerable. The documents from that time related to her lectures when she was having a mystical moment, were the reason why the process stopped; got started twice again and one more time at the present.
Nowadays, the friary keeps the Sister Juana's remains which were burnt and scattered in the thirties, but a part of them, were rescued later and disposed in the urn which is worshiped in the church these days.
There are a lot of artworks which have been devoted to the life and work of Sister Juana de la Cruz. Among them, it stands out the trilogy made by Tirso de Molina (http://www.uqtr.ca/teatro/teapal/TeaPalNum06Rep/TeaPal06Zugasti.pdf)ans also, the sonnet that both, Félix Lope de Vega and Carpio, wrote to Santa María de la Cruz and Santa Juana.
“Al sol que el cielo espléndido ennoblece,
Tal vez se opone densa nube oscura,
Que aprisiona su luz, mientras dura,
Piensa la tierra vil que el sol padece:
Mas la virtud que en las ofensas crece,
Rompe la sombra que turbar procura
Su eterna claridad, y más segura
Con doblada corona resplandece.
Así vuestras virtudes peregrinas
-Heroica Virgen, del Cordero Esposa-
Tocadas muestran como fueron finas.
Las dudas deshacéis, Juana dichosa;
Y no son nubes ya, sino cortinas
Que descubren la imagen más hermosa.”
The most important park in Cubas is the park of “Doña Julia”. It is placed opposite the the Town Hall and it is a meeting point for everybody in Cubas. It has an extensión of 3,006 m2 with grown up trees, prevailing the elm and its magnificent shadow.
In the last few years and as a coincidence with the housing spread in the village, we have seen how more green areas have been created in Cubas, assigned specially to public parks.
We also have the park of “La Granja” in the neigborhood of “El soto”, created in 2003 and with an extensión of 13,437 m2. Tilias, olive trees and bananas share space with bushes and rose bushes. This park counts on with a big and great entertaining area for children.
Close to the shopping centre we can find the park of “ Las Pérgolas”. It was created in 2006 and has a playing area, a pond and an extensive trail to walk.
On the corner of Fresnos Street and Juan de Austria St this residential area of “El Soto” we can find a semi-forestry park with 8 944 m2, a green area full of big oaks and a playing area.
“Los Olmos Park" has a big amount of trees of this kind (elms) although it also has almond trees. These both kinds of trees were chosen because they belong to the area, they need Littlewáter, and they are strong against plagues. The main feature of this park is its trails sided with trees and a resting area.
The park of “La Malata”, is situated in the neighbourhood with the same name and it has an extensión of 2.831 m2 with a playing area too.
Young and well lined up prunes, olive trees and bushes cover the playing area in the park of the Mester de Clerecía St. This park counts with an extensión of 3.859 m2.
At the Garcilaso de la Vega street, we can enjoy of an extensive park of 13.876 m2. It has big olive trees and Young prunes and ash trees. It is also available a playing area for children and some machines for the elderly to exercise
Besides all these mentioned parks, Cubas has a pine forest in its municipality, which is in the west side of the downtown, between the Villanueva de Córdoba street, la Ermita and Pozo Blanco street. On the corner of these two last streets there is an hermitage which protects and embraces to the “Virgen de la Luna”. This wood was planted 60 years ago, and it produces the main amount of oxygen in our villages, becoming the lung of Cubas.